Monday, July 27, 2009

Emergence of Behavioral Science

1596 – 1650, Rene Descares, a French philosopher suggested that mind and body are distinct entities and that they interact through the pineal gland, found deep within the brain. This vie is also known as dualism.

Early 18th Century, Carolus Linnaeus, Classified plants and animals in a systematic order which place humans in the same order as apes and monkey.

In 1830’s, Comte, coined the term sociology and began outlining the discipline which from the core of the behavioral science.

At the end of 1830’s, William James at Harvard & Wilhelm Wundt at Leipzig, were opening the laboratories & commencing the systematic attack on problems within the areas of the human behavior.

Mid 18th Century, Jean Lamarck, acquired characteristics could be inheritated and therefore species could evolve.

1860 -1880, Johannes Muller, described how electrical signals were conducted by nerves within the body and how it functions as human behavior.

Late 18th Century, Charles Darwin, Evolution of species through mechanism of natural selection.

Late 18th Century, Karl Marx, Societies as being shaped by struggle between those who owned the means of production and those who did not – Theory of dynamics of this struggle in emerging industrial capitalists’ societies of his time.

Late 18th Century, Max Weber, focus on potential benefits recognized by Marx but emphasize on problems of new industrial order.

In 1890’s, Ivan P. Pavlov, a Russian psychologist, tested the effects of training by measuring the amount of saliva that flowed when he rang the bell and did not present food.

In 1936, Lasswell, illustrates the differences between the “science of politics which calls for the systematic statement of theory & the use of empirical methods of gathering and processing data & the philosophy of politics which justifies preferences.”

In 1947, Von Neumann & Morganstern, provided the stimulus for the growth of the game theory which relates to the strategy employed in “games” that may be the war or play based on rational and statistical decision process.

In 1948, Weiner, who was the first to develop the concepts to any extent or i.e. cybernetics. The science of communication and control has been called cybernetics.

In 1949, Von Mises, Economics as the branch of the more general theory of human action deals with all human action, i.e., with man’s purposive aiming at the attainment of the ends chosen, whatever these ends may be.

In 1949, Shannon and Weaver, This is a mathematical approach to questions of communication stemming primarily from the pioneering work of these scientists. Probabilities of selection of symbols in the communication process remain the crux of the area.

1954 – 1956, Edwards(1954), Cyert, Simmon & Trow (1956), gives framework on decision theory which incorporates more concepts to consider many of the difficult points arose under game theory.

In 1957, Fichter, defined the sociology as the scientific study of patterned, shared human behavior, the ways in which people act toward one another.

In 1959, Koch, The difference, heatedly argued in the past, are no longer crucial though the flavor of psychology today shows some influences of the differentiations.

In 1960, Rubenstein and Haberstroh, The functioning of individual in organizations is now being studied from a systems standpoint as a move toward equilibrium and a pattern of role and relationships, and from many other vantage points, but the underlying developments in these indicate an eventual convergence of views on what an organization is and how it functions.

In 1963, Galileo and Merton, states that behavioral sciences comprised “a very new science of a very ancient subject.”

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